[ Contents ] [ Intro ] [ Glossary ]
Chapters
[ I ] [ II ] [ III ] [ IV ] [ V ] [ VI ] [ VII ] [ VIII ] [ IX ] [ X ] [ XI ] [ XII ] [ XIII ]
Texts
[ Tatian ] [ Psalms ] [ St Emeramer Gebet ] [ Otfrid ] [ Das Ludwigslied ] [ Muspilli ] [ Notes ]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HENRY FROWDE, M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD LONDON, EDINBURGH NEW YORK AND TORONTO


 

CLARENDON PRESS SERIES

 

AN

OLD HIGH GERMAN

PRIMER

 

WITH

 

GRAMMAR, NOTES, AND GLOSSARY

 

BY

 

JOSEPH WRIGHT, Ph.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

 

SECOND EDITION

 

 

 

 

OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1906

[ All rights reserved ]


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OXFORD

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

BY HORACE HART, M.A.

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

In an elementary book like the present it is, of course, impossible even to state all the phenomena of sound-change peculiar to the Old High German language as a whole, especially when one attempts to make a discrimination between the Upper German and Upper Franconian dialects. I have, however, endeavoured to bring within a comparatively small compass all the really more important features of the language, and fully believe that the beginner who conscien­tiously works through the book will have acquired such a sound elementary knowledge of the language as will enable him to pursue his further study of German with little diffi­culty, whether from a literary or a purely linguistic point of view. In the MHG. primer many forms were left un­explained which beginners would, no doubt, like to have seen explained. There I mentioned such OHG. forms only as were absolutely necessary for the understanding of the Accidence, intentionally reserving the rest for the present little book. In fact, MHG. grammar will cause little or no difficulty to a student possessing a mere elementary know­ledge of Old High German.

I trust that these two little books—imperfect and incom­plete as they are—will contribute something towards further­ing the scientific study of German in England, and fostering among our countrymen a love for that great store of medieval literature of which the German nation is justly proud.

In conclusion I gratefully acknowledge my obligations to Braune's Althochdeutsche Grammatik, Halle, 1886, and to the same author's Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, Halle, 1881, a new edition of which is to appear shortly.

J. WRIGHT

oxford : May, 1888.


 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND
EDITION

The new edition of this Primer has been carefully revised and brought up to date. The part dealing with the phono­logy has been almost entirely rewritten.  Although the phonology only occupies forty-four pages, the student, who masters it thoroughly, will have acquired a fairly good know­ledge of the subject so far as it relates to Old High German of the ninth century.

I have not found it desirable to change the general plan and scope of the former edition, because my long experience as teacher of and examiner in the subject has fully convinced me that books containing more details about the phonology and accidence than those given in the Primer are unsuitable for beginners. I hope the present edition of the book may serve the same purpose in the future as the former edition has done in the past—viz. to help to further the scientific study of Old German among our countrymen.

JOSEPH WRIGHT

oxford: June, 1906.


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION (§§ 1-3)................................................................ 1-2

 

CHAPTER I

Alphabet and Pronunciation           2-7

The OHG. alphabet (§ 4). Pronunciation of the OHG. vowels (§§ 5-6). Pronunciation of the OHG. consonants (§ 7).  Phonetic survey of the OHG. sound-system (§ 8-11). Stress (§ 12).

 

CHAPTER II

The Primitive Germanic Equivalents Of The Indo-Germanic Vowel-system     8-11

The Indo-Germanic vowel-system (§ 13). The short vowels (§§ 14-18); the long vowels (§§ 19-23); the diphthongs (§§ 24-9) ; the Indo-Germanic vocalic nasals and liquids (§§ 30-3).

 

CHAPTER III

The Primitive Germanic Vowel-system........................ 11-14

Table of the Primitive Germanic vowel-system (§ 34). The change of a to & (§ 36). The change of e to i (§ 37). The change of i to e (§ 38). The change of u to o, u (§ 89). The vowel-system at the close of the Primitive Germanic period (§ 40).

 

CHAPTER IV

The OHG. Development  of the General Germanic

Vowel-system.................................................................... 14-21

Umlaut (§ 41). The short vowels (§§ 42-7); the long vowels (§§ 48-53); the diphthongs (§§ 54-6).

 

CHAPTER V

The OHG. development OF THE primitive germanic

vowels OF unaccented syllables............................. 21-5

The vowels of final syllables (§§ 57-9) ; the vowels of other than final syllables (§§ 60-3).

 

CHAPTER VI

The First Sound-shifting, Verner’s law, and Other Consonant Changes which took place in the Primitive Germanic Language.......... 25-34

The Indo-Germanic consonant system (§ 65). The first sound-shifting:—the tenues (§ 66); the mediae (§ 67); the tennes aspiratae (§ 68) ; the mediae aspiratae (§§ 69-71). Verner’s Law (§ 72). Other consonant changes (§§ 73-7). Table of Primitive Germanic consonants (§ 78).

 

CHAPTER VII

Special West Germanic Modifications of the General Germanic Consonant-system. The High German Sound-shifting, &c....................... 34-40

The change of medial z to r and the loss of final z (§ 79). The gemination of consonants before a following j (§ 80). The gemination of, p, t, k before a following r (§ 81). Table of the Primitive HG. explosives and spirants (§ 82). The OHG. shifting of the voiceless explosives (§§ 83-4). The OHG. shifting of the voiced explosives and spirants (§ 85). Summary of the HG. sound-shifting (§ 86). Verner's Law in OHG. (§ 87).

 

CHAPTER VIII

The OHG. Consonants in general ...................................  41-4

Simplification of double consonants (§ 89). The semi­vowels (§§ 90-1); liquids and nasals (§ 92) ; labials (§ 93); gutturals (§ 94) ; dentals (§ 95).

 

CHAPTER IX

Declension of Nouns........................................................... 45-55

A. The strong declension: — Masculine and neuter a-stems (§§ 97-101); masculine and neuter ja-stems (§§ 102-4); masculine and neuter wa-stems (§ 105); o-stems (§§ 107-8); jo-stems (§§ 109-11); feminine ab­stract nouns in -i (§§ 112-3) ; the i-declension (§§ 114-6); the u-declension (§§ 117-20).

B. The weak declension (§§ 121-4).

C. Minor declensions:—Monosyllabic consonant stems (§§ 125-7) ; stems in -r (§§ 128-31); stems in -nt (§ 132) ; stems in -os, -es (§§ 133-5).

 

CHAPTER X

Declension of Adjectives................................................. 55-64

A. Strong declension (§§ 137-44).   B. Weak declen­sion (§§ 145-6). C. Declension of participles (§S 147-8). D. The comparison of adjectives (§§ 149-52). Appendix:

Formation of adverbs from adjectives (S 153); Compari­son of adverbs (§§ 154-5). Numerals :—Cardinal and ordinal numerals (§§ 156-9) ; other numerals (§ 160).

 

CHAPTER XI

Pronouns................................................................................... 64-9

Personal (§ 161); reflexive (§ 162); possessive (§§ 163-4); demonstrative (§§ 165-7); relative (§ 168); interrogative (§§ 169-70); indefinite (§ 171).

 

CHAPTER XII

verbs.......................................................................................... 69-89

Classification of the OHG. verbs, and the OHG. ablaut-series (§ 172-3).

A. Strong Verbs:—The conjugation of the model strong verb nëman (§ 174). Class I (§ 176); Class II (§ 177); Class III (§ 178); Class IV (§ 179); Class V (§ 180); Class VI (§ 181); Class VII (§§ 182-4).

B. Weak Verbs:—Classification of the OHG. weak verbs (§ 185); first weak conjugation (§§ 186-81); second weak conjugation (§ 192) ; third weak conjugation (§ 193).

C. Minor Groups:—A. The preterite-presents (§§ 194-200). B. Verbs in -mi: 1. The substantive verb (§ 202); 2. tuon (§ 203);  3. gān (ǵ́ēn) (§§ 204-5) ; 4. The verb ' will' (§ 206).

 

CHAPTER XIII

syntax ........................................................................................ 90-2

Cases (§§ 207-9). Adjectives (§§ 210). Pronouns (§ 211). Verbs (§§ 212-3).

 

TEXTS:

        I.      tatian............................................................................. 93-116

     II.      psalms.............................................................................. 116-7

   III.      st. emmeramer gebet.................................................. 117-8

  IV.      otfrid.............................................................................. 119-35

     V.      das ludwigslied........................................................... 135-7

  VI.      christ AND THE woman OF samaria...................... 137-8

VII.      muspilli.......................................................................... 139-42

 

NOTES..................................................................................... 143-7

 

GLOSSARY............................................................................ 148-76

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