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CHAPTER X

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES

§ 136. Adjectives are declined as strong or weak. They have three genders, and the same cases as nouns. The end­ings of the strong declension are partly nominal and partly pronominal (the latter are given in italics). The nominal endings are those of the a- and o-declension. The strong declension is divided into pure a-, ō-stems, ja-, jō-stems, and wa-, wō-stems, like the corresponding nouns.

 

A. Strong Declension

1.    Pure a-, ō-stems.

§ 137.                        Masc.                        Neut.                        Fem.

Sing.

Nom.

blintēr, blind

blint

blintiu

 

Acc.

blintan

blint

blinta

 

Gen.

blintes

blintes

blintera

 

Dat.

blintemu, -emo

blintemu, -emo

blinteru, -ero

 

Instr.

blintu, -o

blintu, -o

 

Plur.

Nom.

blinte

blintiu

blinto

 

Acc.

blinte

blintiu

blinto

 

Gen.

blintero

blintero

blintero

 

Dat.

blintēm, ēn

blintēm, ēn

blintēm, ēn

 

Note.—1. The nom. case sg. and pl., all genders, has often an un-inflected form, so also the acc. sg. neut, as blint. This remark applies to all adjectives of the strong declension. See § 310.

2. The nom. sg. fem. and the nom., acc. pl. neut. frequently end in -u (blintu) in Upper Franconian.

3. Adjectives ending in -al, -ar, -an with long stems sometimes drop the a before a vocalic ending, as bittar, bitter, gen. bittres. See § 59.

 

§ 138. Like blint are declined all adjectives whose uninflected form ends in a consonant, as guot, good, alt, old, jung, young, guldīn, golden, mathīg, mighty, erdlīh, earthly, &c.

 

2. ja-, jō-stems.

§ 139. The ja-, jō-stems differ from the pure a-, ō-stems in the uninflected form only, which regularly ends in –i.

 

§ 140.                                              Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

scōnēr, beautiful

scōn

scōniu

Acc.

scōnan

scōn

scōna

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

§ 141. Like scōni are declined all adjectives whose uninflected form ends in -i, also all present participles; as festi, fast, māri, renowned, tiuri, dear, biderbi, useful, bëranti, bearing, &c.

 

3. wa-, wo-stems.

§ 142. This class differs from the pure a-, ō-class in the uninflected form only. Those adjectives whose uninflected form ends in -o preceded by a consonant usually develop an a (seldom e, o) between the consonant and the w in the inflected forms. See § 63.

 

§ 143.                                              Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

gar(a)wēr, ready

garwēr

gar(a)w

garw

garwiu

garwiu

Nom.

fawēr, little

faw

fawiu

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

§ 144. To this class belong garo, ready; gëlo, yellow;

zëso, right, dexter; fao, fō, little; slēo, slē, dull; frao, frō, glad, joyful, rao, rō, raw. See § 90.

 

B. Weak Declension

§ 146. The weak declension of adjectives agrees exactly with that of the nouns.

Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

blinto

blinta

blinta

Acc.

blinton, -un

blinta

blintūn

Gen. Dat.

blinten, -in

blinten, -in

blintūn

Plur.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom. Acc.

blinton, -un

blintun, -on

blintūn

Gen.

blintōno

blintōno

blintōno

Dat.

blintōm, -ōn

blintōm, -ōn

blintōm, -ōn

 

§ 146. In the same manner are declined the weak forms of the ja-, jō- and wa-, wō-stems, thus:

                                                       Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

scōno

scōna

scōna

 

gar(a)wo

gar(a)wa

gar(a)wa

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

C. Declension Of Participles

§ 147. The present participle has both the strong and the weak declension. In the former case it is declined like a ja-, jō-stem, and in the latter case like blinto. Thus un-inflected form nëmanti, faking, salbōnti, anointing, habēnti, having.

                                                Strong

                                           Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

nëmantēr

nëmant

nëmantiu

 

salbōntēr

salbōnt

salbōntiu

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

                                                Weak

                                           Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

nëmanto

nëmanta

nëmanta

 

salbōnto

salbōnta

salbōnta

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

§ 148. The past participle, like the present, has both the strong and the weak declension. The uninflected form of strong verbs ends in -an, as ginoman, taken, giritan, ridden; that of the weak verbs ends in -t, as gihabēt, had, gisalbōt, anointed.

                                                Strong

                                           Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

ginomanēr

ginoman

ginomaniu

 

gihabētēr

gihabēt

gihabētiu

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

Note.—In Franconian monuments the suffix -an occasionally appears as -on, en, or -in in the inflected forms.

                                                Weak

                                           Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

ginomano

ginomana

ginomana

 

gihabēto

gihabēta

gihabēta

 

&c.

&c.

&c.

 

D. The Comparison of Adjectives

1. The Comparative Degree.

§ 149. The comparative is formed by means of the two suffixes -ir- (=Gothic -iz-) and -ōr- (=Gothic -ōz-), to which are then added the endings of weak adjectives.  Polysyllabic adjectives formed with derivative suffixes and compound adjectives take the suffix -ōr-; ja-, jō-stems the suffix -ir-; uncompounded pure a-, ō-stems sometimes take the one, sometimes the other suffix, thus :—

Positive

Comparative

sālīg, blessed

sālīgōro

tiurlīh, dear

tiurlīhhōro

engi, narrow

engiro

suoži, sweet

suožiro

lang, long

lengiro

hōh, high

hōhiro, hōhōro

 

Note.—The ending -iro is sometimes weakened to -ero in Franconian monuments. Beside jungiro, the ordinary comp. of jung, young appear jungoro and jūgiro; with the latter form cp. Gothic positive juggs = *jungs, comparative jūhiza.

 

2. The Superlative.

§ 150. The Superlative is formed by means of the two suffixes -ist- (=Gothic -ist-) and -ōst- (= Gothic -ōst-), to which are then added the endings of weak adjectives. Ad­jectives which have -iro in the comparative have -isto in the superlative, and those which have -ōro in the comp. have -ōsto in the superlative, thus sāligōsto, tiurlīhhōsto, engisto, suožisto, lengisto, hōhisto, hōhōsto.

 

3. Irregular Comparison.

§ 151. The following adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives from a different root than the positive :—

guot, good                  comp.             bežžiro                  superl.             be^zisto

ubil, bad                                     wirsiro                                   wirsisto

mihhil, great                                 mēro                                      meisto

luzzil, little                                   minniro                    ,,               minnisto.

Note.—l. Beside the regular form mēro (=Gothic máiza) occur in Alemanic the forms mēriro, mērōro, which are double comparatives like Mod. Eng. nearer.

2. ležžisto, last, is defective.

 

§ 152. In a few cases the comparative and superlative are formed from an adverb or preposition, as in Latin.

Pos.

Comp.

Superl.

after, after

aftro, aftaro, -ero

aftrōsto

afterōsto

aftristo

ēr, formerly

ēriro

ēristo

fora, furi, before

furiro

furisto

furdir, forwards

fordro

fordaro, -oro

fordarōsto

hintar, behind

hintaro

hintarōsto

inne, within

innaro

innarōsto

oba, above

obaro, oboro

obarōsto

untar, down

untaro

untarōsto

ūž, ūžar, outside

ūžaro

ūžarōsto.

 

Note.—Beside the regular forms obaro, &c., the Alemanic diale frequently has forms with double comparative endings, as obarōro, &c cp. mēriro, mērōro.

Appendix

Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives

§ 153. 1. By simply adding -o to the uninflected form the adjective when it ends in a consonant, thus:—

adj.             mahtīg, mighty                     adv.             mahtīgo

            ubil, bad                                       ubilo

            tiurlīh, dear                                      tiurlīho.

2. Adjectives ending in -i (ja-, jō-stems) drop the -i before the adverbial ending -o; and those containing a mutated st? vowel do not have it in the adverbs, thus:

adj.             scōni, beautiful                      adv.            scōno

            tiuri, dear                             tiuro

            festi, fast                              fasto

            semfti, soft                              samfto

 

Comparison Of Adverbs

§ 154. The comparative degree of adverbs ends in (never -ir); the superlative mostly ends in -ōst, but sometimes also in -ist, thus:—

Adj.   lang, long ;    adv.              comp.               langōr               superl.              langōst

        festi, fast;                                    fastōr                                fastōst

       jung, young                                                        jungist

 

§ 155. The following are irregular :—

wola, well

comp. baž

superl. bežžist

 

         wirs, worse

          wirsist

 

         mēr, more

          meist

 

         min, less

          minnist

 

Note.—Beside mer, meist occur the weak neuter adj. forms mēra meista as adverbs.

NUMERALS

1. Cardinal and Ordinal.

Cardinal

Ordinal

ein, one

ēristo, furisto

zwei, two

ander

drī, three

dritto

feor, fior, four

feordo, fiordo

fimf, finf, five

fimfto, finfto

sëhs, six

sëhsto

sibun, seven

sibunto

ahto, eight

ahtodo

niun, nine

niunto

zëhan, zëhen, ten

zëhanto

einlif, eleven

einlifto

zwelif, twelve

zwelifto

drīzëhan, thirteen

drittozëhanto

fiorzëhan, fourteen

fiordozëhanto

finfzëhan, fifteen

finftazëhanto

sëhszëhan, sixteen

sëhstazëhanto

*sibunzëhan, seventeen

sibuntozëhanto

ahtozëhan, eighteen

ahtodazëhanto

niunzëhan, nineteen

niuntozëhanto

zweinzug, twenty

zweinzugōsto

drīžžug, drīžug, thirty

drīžugōsto

fiorzug, forty

fiorzugōsto

finfzug, fifty

finfzugōsto

sëhszug, sixty

sëhszugōsto

sibunzug, seventy

sibunzugōsto

ahtozug, eighty

ahtozugōsto

niunzug, ninety

niunzugōsto

zëhanzug,

hunt,

hundred

zëhanzugōsto

zwei hunt, two hundred

 

thūsunt,

dūsunt,

thousand

 

 

§ 156. The first three cardinal numerals are declinable in all cases and genders.

1. ein follows the strong declension, when used as a numeral, § 137. When ein is used in the sense of alone, it follows the weak declension.

2.                       Masc.                     Neut.                     Fem.

Nom. Acc.

zwēne

zwei

zwā (zwō)

Gen.

zweio

zweio

zweio

Dat.

zweim, zwein

zweim, zwein

zweim, zwein

3.                      Masc.                     Neut.                     Fem.

Nom. Acc.

drī

driu

drīo

Gen.

drīo

drīo

drīo

Dat.

drim, drin

drim, drin

drim, drin

 

§ 157. The cardinal numerals 4-12 remain uninflected when they stand before a noun, whereas, if they stand after a noun or are used as nouns, they are declined according to the i-declension.  The neut., nom. and acc., has the adjectival ending.

Masc. Fem.

Neut.

Nom. Acc.

-i

-iu; -u

Gen.

-eo, -o

-eo, -o

Dat.

-im, -in

-im, -in

 

§ 158. The cardinal numerals 20-100 ending in -zug = OE. -tig, Gothic tigus, decade, are followed by the genitive. dūsunt, thūsunt is mostly treated as a fern. sub­stantive, but sometimes also as a neuter.

 

§ 159. ander, second, inflected form anderēr, -až, -iu, follows the strong declension, the remaining ordinal numerals follow the weak declension.

 

2. Other Numerals.

§ 160. 1. Distributive numerals, as einluzze, one by one, zwiske, two by two.

2.  Multiplicatives, as einfalt (falt = OE. -feald), zwifalt, &c.

3. Numeral adverbs, as eines, gen. sg., once; zwiro, zwiror, zwiron, twice ; driror, thrice. The higher numbers, as also sometimes those given above, are formed by means of prefixing the cardinal numbers to stunt, times, thus, sibunstunt, seven times.

 

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Chapters
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