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CHAPTER XI

Pronouns

§ 161.                                  1. Personal.

 

Sing.

Plur.

Nom.

ih, I

wir

Acc.

mih

unsih

Gen.

mīn

unsēr

Dat.

mir

uns.

 

Sing.

Plur.

Nom.

dū, du, thou

ir

Acc.

dih

iuwih

Gen.

dīn

iuwēr

Dat.

dir

iu

 

 

Sing.

Nom.

ėr, he

iž, it, there

siu; sī, si, she

Acc.

inan, in

sia (sie)

Gen.

(sīn)

is, ės

ira (iru, -o)

Dat.

imu, imo

imu, imo

imu, imo

 

Plur.

Nom.

sie

siu

sio

Acc.

sie

siu

sio

Gen.

iro

iro

iro

Dat.

im, in

im, in

im, in

 

Note.—l. ih and dū were often attached enclitically to the verb, especially in poetry, as gibuh=gibu ih, findistu — findis dū. The forms iuwih, iuwēr were mostly written iuuih, iuuēr, sometimes also iuih, iuēr.

2. Beside ēr (= Latin and Gothic is, he) appear in some Franconian monuments the forms hēr, hē (OE. hē, he, he).

3. Beside the accented forms man, imo, iro, sia, sie, sio occur the unaccented forms nan, mo, ro, sa, se, so.

4. ėr, iž, ės, in were sometimes attached enclitically to a preceding word, as giloubt-ėr.—giloubta ėr; imos=imo ės, &c.

 

§162.                                   2. Reflexive.

 

Sing.

Plur.

Acc.

sih, oneself

sih

Gen.

sīn (ira)

(iro)

Dat.

(imu, iru)

(im)

 

          3. Possessive.

§ 163. The possessive pronouns of the first and second persons were formed from the gen. case of the corresponding personal pronouns, thus, mīn, my, dīn, thy, unsēr, our, iuwēr, your. The masc. and neut. sg. were expressed by the reflexive form sīn, his, its; the fern. sg. by ira, her, lit. of her, and the plural, all genders, by iro, their, lit. of them.

They were declined according to the strong declension, § 137.

                     Masc.                   Neut.                     Fem.

          Nom.    mīnēr                    mīnaž                    mīniu

                     unserēr                 unseraž                 unseriu.

 

Note.—Beside unserēr, iuwerēr the forms unsarēr, iawarēr some­times occur.

 

§ 164. unsēr and iuwēr have also shortened inflected forms in Franconian :—

                 Masc.                   Neut.                    Fem.

Sing. Nom.     unsēr                    unsaž                    unsu

         Acc.     unsan                    unsaž                    unsa

          Gen.     unses                    unses                    unsera

          Dat.     unsemo                 unsemo                 unseru

Plur. Nom.     unse                      unsu                      unso

                     &c.                       &c.                       &c.           

 

4. Demonstrative.

§ 165. The simple demonstrative thėr, dėr was employed both as definite article and relative pronoun.

 

Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

dėr

daž

diu

Acc.

dėn

daž

dea, dia (die)

Gen.

dės

dės

dėra, (dėru, -o)

Dat.

dėmu, demo

dėmu, demo

dėru, -o

 

Plur.

Nom. Acc.

dē, dea, dia, die

diu, (dei)

deo, dio

Gen.

dėro

dėro

dėro

Dat.

dēm, dēn

dēm, dēn

dēm, dēn

 

Note.—1. The Franconian dialects have mostly the unshifted forms thēr, thaž, thiu, &c.

2. Beside the nom. form thēr occurs also thie (thē) in Tatian.

3. Beside the nom., acc. fem. pl. thio occur in Franconian also thie, rarely thia.

4. dėr, &c., when used as a rel. pronoun, frequently had contracted forms, especially in poetry, as theih from *tha ih = thaž ih, thiuns = thiu uns, zēn = zi thēn.

 

§ 166. The compound demonstrative pronoun is declined

thus:—

 

Sing.

 

Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Nom.

dėse, dėsēr, this

diz

dėsiu, disiu (thisu)

Acc.

dėsan

diz

dėsa

Gen.

dėsses

dėsses

dėsera

Dat.

dėsemu, dėsemo

dėsemu, dėsemo

dėseru

Instr.

 

dėsiu, dėsu

disiu, disu

 

 

Plur.

Nom.

Acc.

dėse

dėsiu, disiu (thisu)

dėso

Gen.

dėsero

dėsero

dėsero

Dat.

dėsēm, -en

dėsēm, -en

dėsēm

 

Note.—The nom. sg. masc. is thėrēr in Otfrid. The gen. sg. fem. is thėrera in Otfrid, and thėrra (thėrro) in Tatian ; dat. fem. sg. tbėreru in Otfrid, and thėrru (thėrro, thėrra) in Tatian ; gen. pl. thėrero in Otfrid, and thėrero (thėrro) in Tatian.

 

§ 167. jenēr, that, yon, mostly written genēr, is declined like a strong adjective, § 137.

sėlb, self, ipse, may follow either the strong or the weak declension. Combined with the def. art., it signifies same, and always follows the weak declension.

 

5. Relative.

§ 168. A relative pronoun proper did not exist in OHG., its place was supplied by the demonstrative dėr, daž, diu.

 

6. Interrogative.

§ 169. The OHG. simple interrogative pronoun had no independent form for the feminine, and was declined in the singular only.

 

Sing.

 

Masc. Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

hwėr, wėr, who

hwaž, waž, what

Acc.

hwėnan, wėnan, wėn

hwaž, waž

Gen.

hews, wės

hwės, wės

Dat.

hwėmu, wėmo

hwėmu, wėmo

Instr.

 

hwiu, wiu

 

Note.—l. The initial h was dropped from the beginning of the ninth century.

2. For the instr. wiu the form hiu is also found.

3. A noun following wėr was put in the gen., as wėr manno, which man, lit. who of men.

 

§ 170. hwėdar, wėdar, which of two, hwėlīh, wėlīh, which, hweolīh, of what sort, and solīh, such, were declined like strong adjectives, § 137.

 

7. Indefinite.

§ 171. sum, sumilīh, sumalīh, a certain one, some one, declined like a strong adjective.

ein, one, einig, eining (in negative sentences any, any one), declined like a strong adjective.

wėr, whoever, sō wėr sō, whosoever, ėtewėr, any one.

thėhein, dėhein, any one, any ; in negative sentences no one, no, none.

man, one, eoman, ioman, somebody, neoman, nioman, nobody.

nihein, nihhein; nohein, nohhein, no, none.

wiht, eowiht, iowiht, anything; neowiht, niowiht, nothing.

gilīh, like (with a noun in the gen.=each), manno gilīh, each man; wėlīh, giwėlīh, eogiwėlīh, iogiwėlīh, each.

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