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CHAPTER XII

verbs

172. The OHG. verb has the following independent forms:one voice (active), two numbers, three persons, two tenses (present and preterite), two complete moods (indicative and subjunctive, the latter originally the optative), besides an imperative which is only used in the present tense, three verbal nouns (pres. infin., pres. participle, and gerund), and one verbal adjective (the past participle).

 

Conjugation.

173. The OHG. verbs are divided into two great classes :Strong and Weak. The latter form their preterite by the addition of the syllable -ta, and their past participle by means of a t-suffix ; the former form their pret. and past participle by vowel gradation (ablaut).

Ablaut is the gradation of vowels both in stem and suffix, caused by the primitive Indo-Germanic system of accentuation. The vowels vary within certain series of related vowels, called ablaut-series. There are in OHG. six such series which appear most clearly in the various classes of the strong verbs. We are able to conjugate a strong verb when we know the four stems, as seen (1) in the infin. or 1. sg. pres. indic., (2) 1. sg. pret. indic., (3) 1. pl. pret. indic., (4) the past participle. By arranging the vowels according to these four stems we arrive at the following system:

 

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

I.

ī, ī

ei, ē

i

i

II.

eo(io), iu

ou, ō

u

o

III.

i(), i

a

u

u, o

IV.

, i

a

ā

o

V.

, i

a

ā

VI.

a, a

uo

uo

a

 

Note.1. Under i. the first vertical column represents the vowels as they appear in the stem of the infinitive, and the second the vowels as they appear in the stem of the 1. sg. pres. indicative.

2. On the difference between eo(io) and iu, see 56; i() and i, see 37, 1; and i, see 44; ei and ē, see 54; ou and ō, see 55 ; u and o, see 39.

3. Although the series of vowels is seen most clearly in the stem-forms of strong verbs, the learner must not assume that ablaut occurs in strong verbs only. Every syllable of every word of whatever part of speech contains some form of ablaut. See Primer of the Gothic Language, chapter vii.

Besides these two great classes of strong and weak verbs, there are a few others which will be treated under the general heading Minor Groups,

The strong verbs were originally further subdivided into reduplicated and non-reduplicated verbs. The reduplication has, however, entirely disappeared in OHG. The non-reduplicated verbs are divided into six classes according to the six ablaut-series given above. The originally reduplicated verbs are put together here and called Class VII.

 

A. strong verbs

174. The conjugation of nman, to take, will serve as a model for all strong verbs.

 

Present.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

nimu

nme

2.

nim-is, (-ist)

nm-ēs, (-ēst)

3.

nimit

name

Plur. 1.

nm-emēs, (-ēm, ēn)

nm-emēs, (-ēm, -ēn)

2.

nmet

nmet

3.

nm-ant, (-ent)

nmēn

 

Imper.

Infin.

Sing. 2.

nim

nm-an, (-en)

Plur. 1.

nm-amēs, -emēs, (-ēm, -ēn)

Gerund.

2.

nmet

Gen.

nmannes

 

 

Dat.

nmanne

 

Pres. Part. nm-anti, (-enti)

 

Preterite.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

nam

nāmi

2.

nāmi

nām-ī, (-īst)

3.

nam

nāmi

Plur. 1.

nām-umēs, (-um, -un)

nām-īmēs, (īm, -īn)

2.

nāmut

nāmīt

3.

nāmun

nāmin

 

Past Part. ginoman

 

Note.1. The ending -st of the 2. sg. does not occur in the oldest monuments; it arose partly from analogy with the preterite-present forms kanst, gitarst, &c., and partly from a false etymological division of the pronoun from the verb to which it was frequently attached enclitically, thus nimisu > nimistu, from which nimist was extracted as the verbal form, cp. the similar process in OE.

2. The ending mēs of the 1. pl. properly belongs to the present indic, and imperative, from which it was transferred by analogy to the 1. pl. subj. pres. and to the pret. indic, and subj.

3. The endings -ēm, -ēn of the 1. pl. belong properly to the subj. pres. only.

4. The ending -un of the 1. pl. pret. indic, arose regularly from older -um. See 92.

5. The infin. ending -en is due to that of the weak verbs, Class I, where -en arose regularly. See 91.

6. The 2. sg. pret. indic, has always the same stem-vowel as the pret. subj. and pret. pl. indic.

The above remarks have merely been made with a view of explaining the verbal forms with double endings. It must not, however, be assumed that the forms, which have remained unmentioned, were all regularly developed from the Germanic primitive language. Some of them were either OHG. new formations (e.g. a. pl. indic, and imper., the regular form of which would be *nimit), or had been modified in some way partly by analogy and partly by levelling, e.g. the e in nmemēs, older form nmamēs.

 
Ablaut-series.

175. We shall only give in each class a few verbs to illustrate the gradation of vowels and consonant changes. All other verbs occurring in the texts will be found in the glossary referred to their proper class.

 

176. Class I.

Infin.

Pret. Sg.

Pret. Pl.

P.P.

ī

ei

ē

54

i

I

bīitan, to wait

beit

bitun

gibitan

scrīban, to write

screib

scribun

giscriban

stīgan, to ascend

steig

stigun

gistigan

rīsan, to fall

reis

rirun

giriran

snīdan, to cut

sneid

snitun

gisnitan

spīwan, to vomit

spēo (spē)

spiwun

gispiwan

dīhan, to thrive

dēh

digun

gidigan

līhan, to lend

lēh

liwun

giliwan.

 

Note.On the pret. spēo, spē, see 90, and for the consonant changes 87.

 

177. Class II.

Infin.

Pres. Sg.

Pret. Sg.

Pret. Pl.

P.P.

io

iu

ou

ō

55

u

o

liogan, to lie

liugu

loug

lugun

gilogan

klioban, to cleave

kliubu

kloub

klubun

gikloban

biotan, to offer

biutu

bōt

butun

gibotan

kiosan, to choose

kiusu

kōs

kurun

gikoran

ziohan, to draw

ziuhu

zōh

zugun

gizogan

Here belong also

sūfan, to sip, drink

sūfu

souf

suffun

gisoffan

sūgan, to suck

sūgu

soug

sugun

gisogan.

 

Note.1. On the Upper German forms of the infin. with iu (liugan) see 56. For kōs beside kurun, &c., see 87.

2. Verbs of this class ending in w have iu throughout the present and ū in the pret, pl. and past participle, as kiuwan, to chew, kou ( 90), kūwun, gikūwan; in the two last forms the w was often dropped.

  1. sūfan, sūgan are properly aorist presents, like Greek τΰφω, τρίβω.

 

Class III.

178. To this class belong all strong verbs having a medial nasal or liquid + consonant, and a few others in which the vowel is followed by two consonants other than nasal or liquid + consonant.

Those with nasal + consonant have i in the infin. and throughout the present ( 37, 1) and u in the past participle ( 39); the others have i in the sing. present ( 37, 2, 44), in the plural, and o in the past participle.

Infin.

Pres. Sg.

Pret. Sg.

Pret. Pl.

P.P.

i

i

a

u

u

o

bintan, to bind

bintu

bant

buntun

gibuntan

rinnan, to run

rinnu

ran

runnun

girunnan

singan, to sing

singu

sang

sungun

gisungan

wrdan, to become

wirdu

ward

wurtun

wortan

strban, to die

stirbu

starb

sturbun

gistorban

hlfan, to help

hilfu

half

hulfun

giholfan

fhtan, to fight

fihtu

faht

fuhtun

gifohtan

brstan, to burst

bristu

brast

brustun

gibrostan

 

Note.1. dwingan, to compel, has the pp. gidungan beside gi-dwungan.

2. biginnan, to begin, and bringan, to bring, have the weak preterites bigonta, bigonda, brāhta, beside the strong bigan, brang.

 

Class IV.

179. To this class belong strong verbs whose stems end in a single liquid or nasal, and a few others.

Infin.

Pres.Sg.

Pret.Sg.

Pret.Pl.

P.P

i

a

ā

o

nman, to take

nimu

nam

nāmun

ginoman

bran, to bear

biru

bar

bārun

giboran

hlan, to hide

hilu

hal

hālun

giholan

stlan, to steal

stilu

stal

stālun

gistolan

quman, to come

quimu

quam

quāmun

quoman

Here belong also

sprchan, to speak

sprichu

sprah

sprāchun

gisprochan

brchan, to break

brichu

brah

brāchun

gibrochan

 

Note.-Beside the pp. quoman occurs also quēman, formed after the analogy of Class V. For initial quē-, qui-, Tatian has co-, cu-.

 

Class V.

180. To this class belong all those verbs having , i in the present, and ending in other consonants than those in Classes III and IV.

Infin.

Pres.Sg.

Pret.Sg.

Pret.Pl.

P.P

i

a

ā

o

gban, to give

gibu

gab

gābun

gigban

shan, to see

sihu

sah

sāhun

gishan

qudan, to say

quidu

quad

quātun

giqutan

랞an, to eat

iu

ā

āun

g랞an

wsan, to be

wisu

was

wārun

 

lsan, to read

lisu

las

lārun

gilran

ghan, to confess

gihu

jah

jāhun

gighan

Here belong also

sitzen, to sit

sitzu

sa

sāun

gis랞an

bitten, to beg

bittu

bat

bātun

gibtan

liggen, to lie down

liggu

lag

lāgun

gilgan.

 

Note.1. With the ā in ā;, cp. OE. etan, Lat. ēdere, to eat, beside OE. āēt, Lat. ēd-ī.

2. On gihu, ghan, beside jah, see 91.

3. sitzen from *sitjan, bitten from *bidjan (=Gothic bidjan), liggen from *ligjan. See 80. The j belonged to the present only.

 

181. Class VI.

Infin.

Pret.Sg.

Pret.Pl.

P.P

a

uo

a

o

faran, to go

fuor

fuorun

gifaran

tragan, to carry

truog

truogun

gitragan

wahsan, to grow

wuohs

wuohsun

giwahsan

slahan, to strike

sluog

sluogun

gislagan

stantan, to stand

stuont

stuontun

gistantan

Here belong also

heffen, to raise

huob

huobun

-haban

skephen, to create

skuof

skuofun

giskaffan

swerien, to swear

swuor (suor)

swuorun

suorun

gisworan

 

Note.1. The 2. and 3.sg. pres. indic. have umlaut, see, however, 43.

2. The pret. sg. sluog has been formed after the analogy of the pret. pl. The regular form sluoh still occurs in the oldest monuments.

3. stuont, stuontun, gistantan have the n in the stem from the present, cp. OE. standan, to stand, pret. stōd. Forms without n are occasionally found in OHG.; as pret. pl. forstuotun. For the shorter present forms, see 204.

4. heffen from *hafjan (=Gothic hafjan, to raise, cp. Lat. capio) ; skephen from *skapjanC (=Gothic skapjan); swerien from *swarjan. See 80. huob has its b from the pret. pl. and pp., the regular form would be *h-uof. The present tense of these three verbs follows the inflection of the -weak verbs, Class I.

5. The regular forms of the 2. and 3. sg, p?es. indie, and 2. sg. imperative of heffen were hevis, hevit, hevi ; for the v see 7 under f. This v then became transferred to other forms of the present where it did not originally belong, e.g. infin. heven, pres. participle heventi. Similarly at a later period the b of the pret. pl. and pp. crept into the present, from which arose the Middle and Modern HG. form heben.

 

Class VII.

182. To this class belong those verbs which had originally reduplicated preterites like e.g. Greek λέλοιπα or Gothic haldan, to hold, pret. sg. hahald; lētan, to let, pret. sg. lalōt; flōkan, to complain, pret. sg. faflōk; hitan, to call, pret. sg. hahit; ukan, to increase, pret. sg. auk.

The reduplication disappeared in OHG. through the reduplicated syllable undergoing contraction with the stem syllable. Five sub-classes are to be distinguished according as the present stem contains

a = Prim. Germanic a, Gothic a

ā = āē ē

ei = ai i

ou 55) = au u

uo = ō ō.

 
Sub-classes 1, 2, 3.

183. The preterite of the verbs belonging here contained the stem-vowel ē in the oldest state of the language. During the OHG. period this ē was developed to ie through the intermediate stages ea, ia, see 50. Otfrid had ia, Tatian ie. The pret. sg. and plur. have the same stem-vowel.

Infin.

Pret. Sg.

P.P.

haltan, to hold

hialt

gihaltan

gangan, to go

giang

gigangan

fallan, to fall

fial

gifallan

Here belong properly also

fāhan, to seize

fiang

gifangan

hāhan, to hang

hiang

gihangan

 

note.1. On the last two verbs see 36, 87.

2. The pret. intfiegun in Tatian for intfiengun was formed after the analogy of the present.

3. For the shorter presents of gangan see 205.

Infin.

Pret. Sg.

P.P.

laan, to let

lia

gilaan

slāfan, to sleep

sliaf

gislāfan

rātan, to advise

riat

girātan

heian, to call

hia

giheian

skeidan, to sever

skiad

giskeidan

meian, to cut

mia

gimeian

 

Sub-classes 4, 5.

184. The preterite of these verbs in the oldest period of the language contained the diphthong eo, which became io (Otfrid ia) in the ninth century. Tatian has both eo and io.

Infin.

Pret. Sg.

P.P.

loufan, to run

liof

giloufan

houwan, to hew

hio

gihouwan

stōan, to push

stio

gistōan

ruofan, to call

riof

giruofan

 

Note.Upper German has the preterite forms liuf, hiu, and riuf.

 

B. weak verbs

185. The weak verbs, which for the most part are derivatives, are divided into three classes according as the infinitive ends in -en (from older -jan, 91), -ōn, -ēn (from older -ain).

Three stems are to be distinguished in the conjugation of weak verbs : the stem of the present, preterite, and the past participle, which mostly agrees with that of the preterite.

 

note.The infinitive of Class I not unfrequently ends in -an (instead of -en), especially in the Upper German dialects. The ending -an was due to the analogy of the infinitive-ending of strong verbs.

 
1. First Weak Conjugation.

186. The verbs of this conjugation are sub-divided into two classes: (a) those which had originally a short stem syllable; (b) polysyllabic verbs and those which had a long stem syllable.

Note.A syllable is long when it contains a long vowel or diphthong, or a short vowel followed by two consonants belonging to the same syllable, thus e. g. slāf, sleep, stein, stone, gast, guest.

 

Class a.

187. Formation of the Present stem. The present stem of these verbs became long (except in the 2. and 3. persons sg. pres. indic., and 2. pers. sg. imperative) by the West Germanic law of the doubling of consonants, see 80. The j had already disappeared in these persons before the operation of this law, for which reason they have single consonants. The verbs, however, ending in one of the affricatae zz (tz), pf, or ck (cch) (= West Germanic tj, pj, hj), have extended these throughout the present and to the imperative 2. pers. sg.

 

Formation of the Preterite and Past Participle.

The j, which caused the doubling of the final consonants in the present stems, never existed in the preterite or past participle, so that these stems end in single consonants. The preterite has usually the ending -ita, but verbs, whose present stems end in one of the affricatae pf, zz (tz), or ck (cch) (= West Germanic pj, fj, hj), have the ending -ta in the preterite. Those whose present stems end in tt or ll (=West Germanic dj, lj), sometimes have the one ending and sometimes the other.

The past pasrticiple has two forms, the one called the uninflected, the other the inflected form. The uninflected form ends in it. The inflected form ends in itēr when the preterite ends in ta. See 148.

 

188. The full conjugation of zellen, to tell, and nerien, to save, will serve as models for this class.

Present

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

zellu, neriu

zelle, nerie

2.

zel-is, ner-is, -ist

zell-ēs, neri-ēs; -ēst

3.

zelit, nerit

zelle, nerie

Plur. 1.

zell-emēs, neri-emēs; ēn

zell-ēm, neri-ēm; -ēn, emēs

2.

zellet, neriet

zellēt, neriēt

3.

zellent, nerient

zellēn, neriēn

 

 

 

 

Imper.

Infin.

Sing. 2.

zeli, neri

zellen, nerien

 

 

 

 

 

Gerund.

Plur. 1.

zell-emēs, neri-emēs;

-ēn

Gen.

zellennes, neriennes

2.

zellet, neriet

Dat.

zellenne, nerienne

 

 

Pres. Participle

 

 

zellenti, nerienti

Preterite.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

zalta zelita, nerita

zalti, zeliti, neriti; -ī

2.

zalt-ōs zelit-ōs, nerit-ōs; -ōst

zalt-īs zelit-īs, nerit-īs; -īst

3.

zalta zelita, nerita

zalti zeliti, neriti; -ī

Plur. 1.

zalt-um zelit-um, nerit-um; -un, -umēs

zalt-īm zelit-īm, nerit-īm; -īn, -īmēs

2.

zaltut zelitut, neritut

zaltīt zelitīt, neritīt

3.

zaltun zelitun, neritun

zaltīn zelitīn, neritīn

 

Past Participle

 

gizalt gizelit, ginerit

 

Note.1. On the personal endings see 174, notes.

2. The forms neriu, neriet, &c., sometimes appear as nerru, nerret, &c.

3. After the analogy of zelis, zelit, the other forms of the present have single consonants in Tatian.

 

Class b

189. The verbs of this class undergo no consonant changes in the present.

The preterite ends in -ta in the Upper German dialects and in Otfnd, while in Tatian it not infrequently ends in -ita. The past participle follows the same rule as the verbs under Class a.

 

Note.1. Present stems ending in double consonants are simplified in the preterite, as brennen, to burn, pret. branta; kussen, to kiss, pret. kusta.

2. Verbs whose present stems end in a consonant + t have only one t in the preterite, as wenten, to turn, pret. wanta.

 

190, The full conjugation of suochen, to seek, will serve as a model for this class.

Present

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

suochu

suoche

2.

suoch-is; -ist

suoch-ēs; -ēst

3.

suochit

suoche

Plur. 1.

suoch-emēs; -ēn

suoch-ēm; -ēn, -emēs

2.

suochet

suochēt

3.

suochent

suochēn

 

Imper.

Infin.

Sing. 2.

suochi

suochen

 

 

Gerund.

Plur. 1.

suoch-emēs; -ēn

Gen.

suochennes

2.

suochet

Dat.

suochenne

 

 

Pres. Part.

 

 

suochenti

Preterite.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

suochta

suocht; -ī

2.

suoht-ōs; -ōst

suoht-īs; -īst

3.

suohta

suohti; -ī

Plur. 1.

suoht-um; -un, -umēs

suoht-īm; -īn -īmēs

2.

suohtut

suohtīt

3.

suohtun

suohtīn

 

Past Participle.

 

gisuochit.

 

191. The following verbs are irregular:

Infin.

Pret.

denken, to think

dāhta ( 74)

dunken, to seem

dūhta ( 74)

furhten

furihten

to be afraid

forhta

forahta

( 39, 63)

wurken, to work

worhta (worahta)

( 39, 63)

 

2. Second Weak Conjugation.

192. Present.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

salbōm; -ōn, I anoint

salbo

2.

salbōs(t)

salbōs(t)

3.

salbōt

salbo

Plur. 1.

salbōmēs, salbōn

salb-ōm; -ōn, -ōmēs

2.

salbōt

salbōt

3.

salbōnt

salbōn

 

Imper.

Infin.

Sing. 2.

salbo

salbōn

 

 

Gerund.

Plur. 1.

salbōmēs; salbōn

Gen.

salbōnnes

2.

salbōt

Dat.

salbōnne

 

 

Pres. Part.

 

 

salbōnti

Preterite.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

salbōta

salbōti; -ī

 

[&c., like suohta]

[&c., like suohti]

 

Past Part. gisalbōt

 

Note.The 1. pl. pres. indic, and imper. and the whole of the subj-present have also longer forms salbōēn, subj. salbōe, &c., in the Upper German dialects.

 

8. Third Weak Conjugation.

193. Present.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

habēm; -ēn, I have

habe

2.

habēs(t)

habēs(t)

3.

habēt

habe

Plur. 1.

habēmēs; habēn

habēm; -ēn, habēmēs

2.

habēt

habēt

3.

habēnt

habēn

 

Imper.

Infin.

Sing. 2.

habe

habēn

 

 

Gerund.

Plur. 1.

habēmēs; habēn

Gen.

habēnnes

2.

habēt

Dat.

habēnne

 

 

Pres. Part.

 

 

habēnti

Preterite.

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

habēta

habēti; -ī

 

[&c., like suohta]

[&c., like suohti]

 

Past Part. gihabēt

 

Note.1. Longer forms occur, habēēn, habēe, as in the second conjugation.

3. Forms like hebis, hebit; segis, segit; hebita, segita, are due to a contamination with verbs of the first conjugation.

 

MINOR GROUPS

A. Preterite-presents

194. These verbs have strong preterites with a present meaning, like Gk. οίδα, Lat. nōvī, I know, from which new weak preterites have been formed. The 2. sg. ends in -t and has the same stem-vowel as the 1. and 3. sg. The following verbs belong to this class:

 

195. I. Ablaut-series.

Wei, I know, 2. sg. weist; 1. pl. wiun (-umēs), subj. wii; pret. wissa (wssa, wsta); infin. wian; pres. part. wianti; pp. giwian.

Pl. eigun, we have, eigut, eigun; subj. eigi, pp. eigan, own, as adj. only. The other forms of this verb are wanting.

 

196. II. Ablaut-series.

3. sg, toug, it avails, 3. pl. tugun ; pret. 3. sg. tohta; pres. part. toganti, inf. wanting.

 

197. III. Ablaut-series.

An, I grant, pl. unnun, subj. unni, pret. onda (onsta), inf. unnan.

kan, I can, know, 2. sg. kanst, pi. kunnun, subj. kunni pret. konda (konsta); inf. kunnan ; pres. part. kunnanti.

darf, I need, 2. sg. darft, pl. durfun, subj. durfi, pret. dorfta, inf. durfan.

gi-tar, I dare, 2. sg. gitarst, pl. giturrun, subj. giturri, pret. gitorsta, inf. and pres. part. wanting, pp. gitorran.

 

198. IV. Ablaut-series.

skal, I shall, 2. sg. scalt, pl. sculun, subj. sculi; pret. scolta, inf. scolan, pres. part. scolanti.

 

Note.Some forms of this verb occur occasionally without c, e.g. Tatian sal, solta, cp. the NHG. forms and OE. sceal, beside Mod. Northern Engl. dial., sal.

 

199. V. Ablaut-series.

mag, I may, can 2. sg. maht, pl. magun (mugun), subj. megi (mugi), pret. mahta (mohta), inf. magan (mugan), pres. part. maganti (muganti).

 

VI. Ablaut-aeries.

200. muo, I may, must, 2. sg. muost, pl. muoun, subj. muoi, pret. muosa, infin. and pres. part. wanting.

 

B. Verbs in -mi

201. The 1. pers. sg. pres. indic, of the Indo-Germanic verb ended either in -ō or in -mi (cp. the Greek verbs in -ω and -μι, like φέρω and τίθημι, &c.). To the verbs in -ō belong all the regular Germanic verbs; of the verbs in -mi only scanty remains have been preserved; they are distinguished by the fact that the 1. pers. sg. pres. indic. ends in -m which became -n in OHG. in the ninth century. Here belong the following OHG. verbs :

 

202. 1. The Substantive Verb.

Present

 

Indic.

Subj.

Sing. 1.

bim, bin

2.

bist, bis

sīs, sīst

3.

ist

Plur. 1.

birum, birun

sīm (sīn)

2.

birut

sīt

3.

sint

sīn

The other forms are supplied from wsan ( 180), thus:

imper., 2. sg. wis, pl. wset, inf. wsan, pres. part. wsanti, pret. 1., 3. sg. was, 2. sg. wāri, pl. wārun.

 

Note.1. The subj. pres. and the indic. 3. sg. ist, 3. pl, sint were formed from the root es-. The forms with b probably arose from a contamination of the root es- with the root bheu- (=Lat. fu-). The regular forms would have been *im, *is, *irum (*irun), *irut.

2. The inf. form sīn was an OHG. new formation.

 

203. 2. The Verb tuon, to do.

Indicative

Oldest

Form.

Tatian.

Otfrid.

Sing. 1.

tōm

tuon

duan

2.

tōs

tuos(t), tūis

duas(t), duis(t)

3.

tōt

tuot

duat, duit

Plur. 1.

tōmēs

tuomēs, tuon

duen

2.

tōt

tuot

duet

3.

tōnt

tuont

duent, daunt

Subjunctive

 

 

 

Sing. 1. 3.

tuo (tuoe, tuoa, tue)

due

2.

tōs

tūēs

duest

Plur. 1.

tōm

 

duen

2.

tōt

tuot

 

3.

tōn

tuon

 

Imperative

 

 

 

Sing. 2.

tuo

dua

Plur. 1.

tōmēs

tuomēs

duemēs

2.

tōt

tuot

duet, duat

Infin.

tōn

tuon

duan

Ger. Dat.

tōnne

tuonne

duanne.

Participle

tōnti

tuonti

 

The preterite of tuon is inflected like a verb of the fifth ablaut-series, except that the 1. and 3. sg.have reduplication tta. The forms are:

Indic. Sing. 1., 3. tta, 2. tāti.

Plur. tātum, -un, tātut, tātun.

Subj. Sing 1., 3. tāti, 2. tātīs(t), &c.

Past Participle gitān.

 

3. The Verbs gān (gēn), to go, and stān (stēn), to stand.

204. The strong verbs gangan ( 183) and stantan ( 181), which regularly form their preterites giang, stuont, have beside these short present forms.

The Alemanic dialect has the forms gān, stān, while the Bavarian and the Franconlan dialects have mostly the forms gēn, stēn.

 

205. The full conjugation of gān (gēn) will serve for both verbs.

Indicative

Subjunctive

Sing. 1.

gām, gān;

gēm, gēn

2.

gās(t)

gēs(t)

gēs(t)

3.

gāt;

gēt

Plur. 1.

gāmēs, gān;

gēmēs, gēn

gēn

2.

gāt;

gēt

gēt

3.

gānt;

gēnt

gēn

Imperative

 

Infinitive

Sing. 2.

[gang]

 

gān; gēn

 

 

 

Gerund

Plur.1.

gāmēs; gēmēs, gēn

 

Gen. gānnes

2.

gāt; gēt

 

Dat. gānne

 

 

 

Pres. Participle

 

 

 

gānti; gēnti

 

note.The 2. sg. indic. is in Otfrid geist, steist, and the 3. sg. mostly geit, steit.

 
4. The Verb (will).

206. The present tense of this verb was originally an optative (subjunctive) form of a verb in -mi, used indicatively, cp. Gothic wilju. To this was formed a new subjunctive and a weak preterite.

Present

 

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

Sing. 1.

willu (wille, willa)

welle

2.

wili (wilis)

wellēs(t)

3.

wili (wilit)

welle

Plur. 1.

wellemēs, wellēn

wellēmēs, wellēn

2.

wellet

wellēt

3.

wellent

wellēn

 

Infin.

Pres. Part.

 

wellen

wellenti

 

 

 

Preterite.

 

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

Sing. 1.

wolta

wolti; -ī

 

[&c., like suohta]

[&c., like suohti]

 

Note.The present forms of this verb, which have the stem-vowel e, have o in the Franconian dialects after the analogy of the preterite, thus inf. wollen, &c.

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